Another post in the series on sketch2model. We’re highlighting a key issue that came up in our project, and describing what how we tackled it. Matteo’s post on Morphological Filtering does a great job of explaining what we implemented in sketch2model. I’ll build on his post to explain the why and how. In case you need a refresher on sketch2model, look back at sketch2model, Sketch Image Enhancement, Linking Edges with Geomorphological Filtering.
As Matteo demonstrated by example, sketch2model’s ability to segment a sketch properly depends on the fidelity of a sketch.
To compensate for sketch imperfections, Matteo suggested morphological filtering on binarized images. Morphological filtering is a set of image modification tools which modify the shape of elements in an image. He suggested using the closing tool for our purposes. Have a look at Matteo’s Post for insight into this and other morphological filters.
One of the best aspects of this approach is that it is simple to apply. There is essentially one parameter to define: a structuring element. Since you’ve already read Matteo’s post, you recall his onion analogy explaining the morphological filtering processes of erosion and dilation – erosion is akin to removing an onion layer, dilation is adding a layer on. You’ll also recall that the size of the structuring element is the thickness of the layer added to, or removed from, the onion. Essentially, the parameterization of this process comes down to choosing the thickness of the onion layers.
Sketch2model uses dilation followed by erosion to fill gaps left between sketch lines (applying dilation then erosion sometimes called closing). Matteo created this really great widget to illustrate closing using an interactive animation.
Some is Good, More is Better?
Matteo showed that closing fails if the structural element used is too small. So just make it really big, right? Well, there can be too much of a good thing. Compare what happens when you use an appropriately sized structuring element (mild) to the results from an excessively large structuring element (wild).
Using a morphological filter with a structural element that is too small doesn’t fix the sketches, but using a structural element that is too large compromises the sketch too. We’re left to find an element that’s just right. Since one of the priorities for sketch2model was to robustly handle a variety of sketches with as little user input as possible — marker on whiteboard, pencil on paper, ink on napkin — we were motivated to find a way to do this without requiring the user to select the size of the structuring element.
Is there a universal solution? Consider this: a sketch captured in two images, each with their own resolution. In one image, the lines of the sketch appear to be approximately 16 pixels wide. The same lines appear to be 32 pixels wide in the other image. Since the size of the structuring element is defined in terms of pixels, it becomes apparent the ideal structuring element cannot be “one size fits all”.
Thinking Like a Human
Still motivated to avoid user parameterization for the structuring element, we explored ways to make the algorithm intelligent enough to select an appropriate structuring element on its own. Ultimately, we had to realize a few things before we came up with something that would work:
- When capturing an image of a sketch, users compose very similar images (compose in the photographic sense of the word): sketch is centered and nearly fills the captured image.
- The image of a sketch is not the same as a user’s perception of a sketch: a camera may record imperfections (gaps) in a sketch that a user does not perceive.
- The insignificance of camera resolution: a sketched feature in captured at two different resolutions would have two different lengths (in pixels), but identical lengths when defined as a percentage of image size.
With these insights, we deduced that the gaps we were trying to fill with morphological filtering would be those that escaped the notice of the sketch artist.
Recognizing the importance of accurate sketch reproduction, our solution applies the smallest structuring element possible that will still fill any unintentional gaps in a sketch. It does so in a way that is adaptable.
A discussion about the definition of “unintentional gap” allowed us to create a mandate for the closing portion of our algorithm. Sketch2model should fill gaps the user doesn’t notice. The detail below the limit of the user’s perception should not affect the output model. A quick “literature” (i.e. Google) search revealed that a person’s visual perception is affected by many factors beyond the eye’s optic limits. Without a simple formula to define a limit, we did what any hacker would do… define it empirically. Use a bunch of test images to tweak the structuring element of the closing filter to leave the perceptible gaps and fill in the imperceptible ones. In the sketch2model algorithm, the size of structuring element is defined as a fraction of the image size, so it was the fraction that we tuned empirically.
Producing Usable Results
Implicit in the implementation is sketch2model’s expectation that the user’s sketch, and their image of the sketch are crafted with some care. The expectations are reasonable: connect lines you’d like connected; get a clear image of your sketch. Like so much else in life, better input gives better results.
To produce an adaptable algorithm requiring as little user input as possible, the sketch2model team had to mix a little image processing wizardry with some non-technical insight.